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Traditions of the Rabbis from the Era of the New Testament, Volume 1: Prayer and Agriculture (David Instone-Brewer) Hardcover Book, (Wm B Eerdmans Publishing Co, 2004) 9780802847621
Traditions of the Rabbis from the Era of the New Testament, Volume 1: Prayer and Agriculture (David Instone-Brewer) Hardcover Book, (Wm B Eerdmans Publishing Co, 2004) 9780802847621
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Title: Traditions of the Rabbis from the Era of the New Testament, Volume 1: Prayer and Agriculture

Author: Instone-Brewer, David

Publisher: Wm B Eerdmans Publishing Co; Publication Date: 2004

Hardcover; ISBN: 9780802847621

Volumes: 1; Pages: 482

List Price in Cloth: $62.00 Our price: $43.99

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Foreword by Birger GerhardssonTraditions of the Rabbis from the Era of the New Testament (TRENT) is a major new work of scholarship that, when complete (six volumes in all), will provide an exhaustive collection of early rabbinic traditions and commentary on their relevance to the New Testament.Focusing on 63 subject areas of great importance to Jewish studies, David Instone-Brewer's massive study provides important insights into Jewish thought and life prior to the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 C.E. For each tradition considered, the relevant Hebrew text and an English translation are presented side by side, with technical terms explained in the text and in a glossarY. Instone-Brewer also sets out the evidence for and against the dating and development of each tradition and provides accessible discussion of its meaning and significance for Second Temple JudaisM. Also, when evidence of the tradition is found in the New Testament, the appropriate text is explained and analyzed.In this first TRENT volume, Instone-Brewer examines texts relating to prayer and agriculture. The first section includes texts dealing with when and how to recite the Shema, the Eighteen Benedictions, and other blessings and prayers. The second section contains texts on a wide variety of considerations related to agriculture, such as the "leftovers" to which the poor are entitled, tithing, "mixed" foods and other products, Sabbath Year activities, offerings, and so on.Sure to be a standard reference work for students of both Judaism and Christianity, TRENT provides for the first time a ready resource on rabbinic traditions originating in the New Testament era.ContentsFOREWORDPREFACEABBREVIATIONSINTRODUCTION TO RABBINIC TRADITIONSThe Authors of Rabbinic LiteratureCollections of Rabbinic TraditionsThe Structure of Rabbinic LawEditions and TranslationsRabbinic GenerationsDating Rabbinic TraditionsTRACTATE BERAKHOT: BLESSINGS (PRAYER)Definitions and OutlineM. Ber.1.1-2: When to recite the ShemaM. Ber.1.1a: From when should you recite the evening Shema?M. Ber.1.2: From when should you recite the morning Shema?M. Ber.1.3-2.4: How to recite the ShemaM. Ber.1.3: Should you stand and recline for the Shema?M. Ber.1.4: Long and short blessings with the Shema.M. Ber.1.5: The 'Exodus' in the ShemaM. Ber.2.5-3.6: Who recites the Shema?M. Ber.2.5: Shema is not performed on the wedding nightY. Ber.2.8. I 21a: Noncompulsory observances are not prohibitedM. Ber.3.1: Shema is not performed by the bereavedM. Ber.3.3: Shema is not performed by women, slaves, or childrenM. Ber.4.1-4: When to pray the Eighteen BenedictionsM. Ber.4.1: Times for praying the EighteenM. Ber.4.3: The Eighteen Benedictions and abstracts of themT. Ber.3.7 (Z 3.11; cf. b. Ber.29b): Eliezer's abstractM. Ber.4.4: R. Eliezer: Prayers should not be fixedB. Ber.34a: Shortened and lengthened prayerT. Ber.3.11: Sabbath Benedictions on an ordinary festival dayT. Ber.3.13 (Z 3.15): Sabbath Benedictions on a holydayM. Ber.4.5-5.2: How you should pray the EighteenM. Ber.4.5-6: Stand, and turn to the Temple to prayM. Ber.4.7: The Additional PrayerM. Ber.5.2: Inserting Rain and Separation in the EighteenM. Ber.5.3-5: Errors when you pray the EighteenM. Ber.5.3: Unallowed phrases in public prayerM. Ber.5.5b: Fluent Prayers of Hanina b. DosaM. Ber.6.1-8: Blessings and Grace after MealsT. Ber.4.1: A blessing must be said before food is eatenM. Ber.6.5: Which blessings include other types of food?M. Ber.6.8: Three Benedictions of the Grace after MealsM. Ber.7.1-5: Saying Grace after Meals for a groupM. Ber.7.1-2: People excluded from saying the Grace after MealsM. Ber.7.3: Calling for the Grace before different numbers of eatersM. Ber.7.5b: Blessing for the final cup of wineM. Ber.8.1-8: School rulings concerning mealsM. Ber.8.1: Order of blessing for the day and for the wineM. Ber.8.2-4: Hand washing and related matters during mealsM. Ber.8.5: Blessings for the lamp and for the spicesM. Ber.8.7: If you forget to say Grace after MealsM. Ber.8.8: The blessing for only one cup of wineT. Ber.5.30b (Z 5.32): The blessing for only one cup of wineT. Ber.5.29 (Z 5.30): Blessing for the final cup of wine and the oilM. Ber.9.1-5: Other blessingsT. Ber.5.30c (Z 5.33): Blessings in the schoolhouseM. Ber.9.5b: Disrespectful behavior on the Temple MountM. Ber.9.5c: Blessings in the Temple and God's name in greetingsThe Eighteen BenedictionsThe Palestinian (Genizah) versionComments on the Eighteen BenedictionsDating of the Eighteen BenedictionsThe Eighteen Benedictions and the New TestamentSummary and ConclusionsTRACTATE PEAH: LEFTOVERS OF HARVEST FOR THE POORDefinitions and OutlineM. Pea.1.1-3: What proportion of a crop is leftovers?M. Pea.1.1: Things which have no measure, and bear fruit in this worldM. Pea.1.4-6: Crops subject to leftovers, and to tithesM. Pea.1.6: Designating peah before tithingM. Pea.2.1-4: What defines a single area for leftovers?M. Pea.2.1: Landmarks defining borders for leftoversM. Pea.2.4: Trees form a single unit for peahM. Pea.2.5-3.4: Borders of a mixed cropM. Pea.2.6: The ancient basis for 'two types of wheat'M. Pea.2.7-8: Digression: When are you exempt from leftovers?M. Pea.3.1: Trees as boundaries for leftoversM. Pea.3.5-8: Multiple ownership of a field(No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)M. Pea.4.1-9: Restricting access of the poor to leftoversM. Pea.4.5: When can the poor collect peah?M. Pea.4.7-8: Dedicating and redeeming crops during harvestM. Pea.4.10-11: Defining 'gleanings'(No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)M. Pea.5.1-3: Poor portion which became mixed with the cropM. Pea.5.1a: Gleanings mixed in with collected produceM. Pea.5.2b: A single stalk of gleanings mixed in with produceM. Pea.5.4-6: Who is a 'poor' person?(No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)M. Pea.5.7-6.6: When is a sheaf forgotten?M. Pea.6.1a: Is ownerless property only for the poor?M. Pea.6.1b-3: Distinctive crop cannot be forgottenM. Pea.6.5: How many sheaves can be forgotten?M. Pea.6.6: How large a sheaf can be forgotten?T. Pea.3.8b (Z 3.13b): The man who gave thanks for forgetting a sheafM. Pea.6.7-7.2: Unharvested crop which cannot be forgotten(No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)M. Pea.7.3: Peret--separated fruit(No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)M. Pea.7.4-8: Olelot--defective bunches of fruitM. Pea.7.6: Can the poor take any fourth-year fruit?M. Pea.7.8a: Defective bunches dedicated to the TempleT. Pea.3.15 (Z 3.21): Dedicated vineyards are exempt from some lawsM. Pea.8.1: The poor collect leftovers first(No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)M. Pea.8.2-4: The poor do not tithe the poor tithe or leftovers(No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)M. Pea.8.5-7: How much poor tithe do you give someone?M. Pea.8.7: Food for the wandering poor and for the local poorM. Pea.8.8-9: Who is 'poor' enough for poor tithe?(No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)Related Early Traditions from Other TractatesM. Yad.4.3: Poor man's tithe outside IsraelSummary and ConclusionsTRACTATE DEMAY: DOUBTFULLY TITHED FOODDefinitions and OutlineM. Dem.1.1-2.1: What can be suspected of being doubtful?M. Dem.1.1a and T. Dem.1.1a: Uncultivated food is exemptM. Dem.1.3: Food not for eating or not from Israel is exemptT. Dem.1.26-28 (Z 1.20): Some spiced oils and meal offerings are exemptM. Dem.2.2-4.2: Special circumstances re doubtfully tithed foodM. Dem.2.2a: How to be a Trusted oneM. Dem.2.3a: How to be an AssociateT. Dem.2.12 (Z 2.9c): How long before you trust an Associate?M. Dem.3.1: Who can be fed with doubtfully tithed food?M. Dem.4.3-5.2: How to recognize and process doubtfully tithed foodM. Dem.4.3: The poor tithe from doubtfully tithed foodM. Dem.5.3-11: Doubtfully tithed food from different sourcesM. Dem.5.9: Do the Samaritans tithe properly?M. Dem.6.1-12: How farmers should titheM. Dem.6.1a, 2a: When and how do tenant farmers tithe?M. Dem.6.6: Only sell olives to someone who tithes properlyM. Dem.7.1-6: When you cannot tithe doubtfully tithed food before eatingM. Dem.7.1: Eating doubtfully tithed food on a SabbathM. Dem.7.7-8: When tithes become doubtful(No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)Summary and ConclusionsTRACTATE KILAYIM: MIXTURESDefinitions and OutlineM. Kil.1.1-6: Which plants form mixtures?M. Kil.1.1: Wheat and tares planted togetherM. Kil.1.7-2.5: Farming with mixtures of plantsM. Kil.1.7: Grafting onto a different plantM. Kil.2.6: The distance between furrows of different plantsM. Kil.2.6-3.7: Separating mixtures of plants(No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)M. Kil.4.1-5.8: VineyardsM. Kil.4.1: Distances in the middle and edge of a vineyardM. Kil.4.5: How many vines are 'sanctified' by different plants?T. Kil.3.17 (Z 3.14b): What is the status of a caper bush?M. Kil.5.3: Sowing in a ditch, a winepress, or under the watchtowerM. Kil.6.1-7.8: Vine trellisesM. Kil.6.1: The minimum size and distance for a vine trellisM. Kil.7.1 and T. Kil.4.11 (Z 4.9): An underground vine shootM. Kil.8.1-6: Mixtures of animalsM. Kil.8.1: Introductory summary of mixturesM. Kil.9.1-10: Mixtures in garmentsM. Kil.9.3: Towels can sometimes be 'garments'M. Kil.9.8: Mixtures of threads woven togetherT. Kil.5.27 (Z 5.14b): Garments of the High Priest contain mixturesRelated Early Traditions from Other TractatesM. Sheq.1.2: Inspecting the land for mixturesB. Men.40a: Linen garments are allowed woollen tasselsSummary And ConclusionsTRACTATE SHEBIIT: SABBATH YEARDefinitions and OutlineM. Shebi.1.1-8: Tending orchards before the Sabbath YearM. Shebi.1.1: Ploughing an orchardM. Shebi.2.1-10: Tending fields before the Sabbath YearM. Shebi.2.1: Ploughing a fieldT. Shebi.1.5 (Z 1.6): Watering saplings until the New YearT. Shebi.2.6a (Z 2.5a): Plants which continue to grow after New YearM. Shebi.3.1-4.6: Tending fields during the Sabbath YearM. Shebi.4.1: Produce from a field which was not neglectedM. Shebi.4.2: Produce from a field which was not neglectedM. Shebi.4.4: Clearing trees in the Sabbath YearM. Shebi.4.7-5.9: Gathering Sabbath Year produceM. Shebi.4.10: Cutting off fruit-bearing branchesM. Shebi.5.4: Digging up arum lily rootsM. Shebi.5.8: Providing agricultural tools in the Sabbath YearT. Shebi.4.5b (Z 1.3b): Selling a field during the Seventh YearM. Shebi.6.1-7.7: Produce which is liable to removalM. Shebi.6.2: Sabbath Year in SyriaM. Shebi.8.1-9.1: Commerce and use of Sabbath Year produceM. Shebi.8.3: Selling produce gathered in the Sabbath YearT. Shebi.6.19 (Z 6.11a): Selling Sabbath Year produce for coinsT. Shebi.7.6 (Z 7.3c): Selling Sabbath Year food for peace offeringsM. Shebi.9.2-9: Removal of Sabbath Year produceM. Shebi.9.5: Removal when a crop disappears from the fieldM. Shebi.10.1-9: Loans in the Sabbath YearM. Shebi.10.3: Origin of the prozbul (loans via the court)M. Shebi.10.4: Wording of the prozbulM. Shebi.10.7: A prozbul requires securityRelated Early Traditions from Other TractatesM. Sot.7.8: Agrippa in the Sabbath Year Temple ceremonyM. Bek.8.10: What reverts to the original owner in Jubilees?Summary and ConclusionsTRACTATE TERUMOT: ELEVATION OFFERINGSDefinitions and OutlineM. Ter.1.1-3, 6: Who may elevate?M. Ter.1.1: Five kinds of people may not elevate elevation offeringsT. Ter.1.1a: Deaf-mutes can supervise pure thingsT. Ter.1.6 (Z 1.6a): Thieves can offer tithes and dedicationsT. Ter.3.1 (Z 3.1a): Why the drunk cannot elevate elevation offeringsM. Ter.1.4-5, 1.7-3.2: From what can you elevate?M. Ter.1.4: Do not elevate crop on behalf of the processed productT. Ter.3.16 (Z.3.15): Some processed crops may be elevated for cropsM. Ter.1.5: Do not elevate from what does not belong to youT. Ter.2.5 (Z.2.4b): You can elevate from one variety for anotherT. Ter.2.14a: You can elevate produce which has not grown one thirdT. Ter.3.12 (Z.3.11): Tithing before the impurity of treading grapesM. Ter.1.8 and T. Ter.3.14a (Z.3.13): Elevate grapes after treading themM. Ter.3.3-4.6: How does one elevate?M. Ter.3.9: Gentiles and Samaritans can tithe and elevateM. Ter.4.3: Average elevation of an elevation offering is one-fiftiethM. Ter.4.7-5.9: Neutralizing elevation offeringsM. Ter.4.7: Elevation offering is neutralized by one hundred partsM. Ter.5.1: Elevation offering in less than one hundred partsM. Ter.5.2: Elevation offering in one hundred parts or moreM. Ter.5.4: Impurity of elevation offering is not neutralizedM. Ter.6.1-8.3: Wrongful consumption of elevation offeringsM. Ter.6.4 and T. Ter.7.8a: Stolen elevation offerings and dedicationsM. Ter.6.5: Recompense for accidentally eating some elevation offeringM. Ter.8.2b: If you find you are eating unlawful food, spit it outM. Ter.7.2: When a priest's daughter cannot eat elevation offeringM. Ter.8.4-12: Spoiled foodM. Ter.8.4: Uncovered drinks are spoiled by reptilesM. Ter.8.6: Beware of snake bites in fruit or animal carcassesT. Ter.7.11 (Z 7.11-12): Food spoiled by insectsM. Ter.9.1-11.5: Food produced from elevation offeringsM. Ter.9.4: Crops grown from consecrated foodM. Ter.10.5: Tainting by fenugreekM. Ter.10.9: Pickling brine is not tainted by unclean locustsM. Ter.11.5: Uneaten portions of consecrated foodT. Ter.10.12: Products from the filtered lees of consecrated wineM. Ter.11.6-10: Elevation offering containers and non-food Items(No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)Related Early Traditions from Other TractatesM. MS.2.3-4: Consumption of consecrated fenugreek and vetchesSummary and ConclusionsTRACTATE MAASEROT: TITHES (FIRST TITHE)Definitions and OutlineM. Maas.1.1-7: The earliest and latest time to titheT. Maas.1.1a (Z 1.1): Produce becomes untithed at the end of processingM. Maas.1.5: When exactly is the last stage of processing?T. Maas.1.7 (Z 1.7-8a): Tithing wine which is dedicated and redeemedM. Maas.2.1-4: Eating untithed food before reaching homeM. Maas.2.4: Snacks after tithing has started but not finishedM. Maas.2.5-6: Eating untithed food which you paid for(No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)M. Maas.2.7-3.3: Eating untithed food given as payment(No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)M. Maas.3.4-10: Eating Untithed Food Found in a Public Place(No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)M. Maas.4.1-5a: Produce which might not be fully processedM. Maas.4.2: Snacks after intending to tithe produceM. Maas.4.5b-5.8: Produce which might not be foodM. Maas.4.5b: Tithing leaves and seeds of herbsSummary and ConclusionsTRACTATE MAASER SHENI: SECOND TITHEDefinitions and OutlineM. Ms.1.1-7: Purchasing and selling second tithe produceM. MS.1.3-4: Purchasing second tithe produce which has containersM. MS.1.5-6: Spending second tithe improperlyM. MS.1.7: What you cannot purchase with second tithe silverM. Ms.2.1-4: Using second tithe produce(No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)M. Ms.2.5-10: Mixing consecrated and deconsecrated coinsT. MS.2.4 (Z 2.6): Accidental mixing of consecrated coins with othersM. MS.2.7-9: Exchanging second tithe silver for other coinsM. Ms.3.1-3.4: Spending second tithe silver(No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)M. Ms.3.5-8: Second tithe inside and outside JerusalemM. MS.3.5: Second tithe produce may not leave JerusalemM. MS.3.6: Second tithe after produce came from JerusalemM. MS.3.7: Trees and rooms partly inside and outside JerusalemM. Ms.3.9-13: Second tithe produce which became impureM. MS.3.9: Second tithe produce of Jerusalem which became impureT. MS.2.16c (Z 2.18c): Where to eat redeemed impure second tithesM. MS.3.13a: How a vendor can sell wine but not the corked jugM. Ms.4.1-7: The cost of redeeming second tithe produceT. MS.3.13-14 (Z 3.13): Second tithe after Jerusalem's destructionT. MS.3.15 (Z 3.14): Eating doubtful second tithe without setting it asideM. Ms.4.8-12: Spending and storing second tithe silverM. MS.4.8b: How little second tithe silver must be counted as 'spent'M. Ms.5.1-5: Fourth-year produce of vineyardsM. MS.5.2: What fourth-year produce can be redeemed?T. MS.5.18 (Z 5.11b): Can you prune fourth-year fruit?T. MS.5.19 (Z 5.11c): Do you redeem grapes or wine?T. MS.5.20 (Z 5.11d): Can a fourth year coincide with a Sabbath Year?T. MS.5.22 (Z 5.12b): If you accidentally dedicate some second titheM. Ms.5.6-15: Removal of consecrated produceM. MS.5.6: The time and process of removalM. MS.5.7: Redeeming or destroying produce subject to removalM. MS.5.10-13: The ancient confession of RemovalM. MS.5.15: The Removal confession finished after JohananRelated Early Traditions from Other TractatesT. San.2.6: Letters from Rn. GamalielSummary and ConclusionsTRACTATE HALLAH: DOUGH OFFERINGDefinitions and OutlineM. Hal.1.1-3: Species which are liable to dough offeringM. Hal.1.3: Food which is liable to dough offering but not to tithesM. Hal.1.4-8: Dough which is exempt from the dough offeringM. Hal.1.6: Are pancakes/wafers or dumplings/cakes liable?M. Hal.1.9-2.2: The holiness of dough offeringM. Hal.2.1: Dough offering from produce outside the LandM. Hal.2.3-8: How to separate the dough offeringM. Hal.2.4: Portions of 1 qab can combine to become liableM. Hal.2.5: A dough offering separated from flour is not validM. Hal.3.1-6: When to separate a dough offeringM. Hal.3.3: Dedicating dough to the Temple and redeeming itM. Hal.3.4: Dedicating and redeeming crops during harvestM. Hal.3.7-4.6: Dough offerings from mixtures or different batches (No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)M. Hal.4.7-11: Dough offerings from outside the LandM. Hal.4.7: Dough offering and tithes from SyriaM. Hal.4.10-11: Bringing offerings to JerusalemRelated Early Traditions from Other TractatesM. Ed.1.2: A dough offering from one qab or two?M. TY.1.1a: Combining lumps of dough or a dough offeringSummary and ConclusionsTRACTATE ORLAH: FOREFRUIT OF YOUNG TREESDefinitions and OutlineM. Orl.1.1-5: Which trees are subject to forefruit? (No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)M. Orl.1.6-9: Forbidden produce of forefruit treesM. Orl.1.7: Non-food and non-fruit portions of forefruit plantsM. Orl.2.1-3: Tainting by a measure of forefruit (and others)M. Orl.2.1: Combining of similar sources of taintingM. Orl.2.4-17: Tainting by the effect of forefruit (and others)M. Orl.2.4-5: Tainting by leavening or flavoringM. Orl.2.11-12: Combining leavening sources of taintingM. Orl.2.13: Tainting leather goods with impure oilM. Orl.3.1-9: Tainting by forefruit (and others), even outside the LandM. Orl.3.9: Forefruit inside and outside the LandT. Orl.1.8: No forefruit outside the LandRelated Early Traditions From Other TractatesM. Qid.1.9: Commandments which are dependent on the LandM. Meil.4.3: Combining similar impure sources of taintingSummary and ConclusionsTRACTATE BIKKURIM: FIRSTFRUITSDefinitions and OutlineM. Bik.1.1-11: Who can bring firstfruits and who can recite?M. Bik.1.3: Bring the seven species before Shabuot (Pentecost)M. Bik.1.6b: Bringing firstfruits after Shabuot (Pentecost)M. Bik.1.8: Firstfruits which are lost or spilled in the Temple CourtM. Bik.2.1-5: Comparing firstfruits with tithes and elevation offerings (No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)M. Bik.2.6-11: Other comparisonsM. Bik.2.9-10: A koy is both like a farm animal and like a wild animalM. Bik.3.1-7: Bringing firstfruits to the TempleM. Bik.3.2: A division of priests gathers before going to JerusalemM. Bik.3.3: Procession to Jerusalem with firstfruitsM. Bik.3.4-5: Carrying firstfruits through Jerusalem to the TempleM. Bik.3.6: Offering the firstfruits and recitingM. Bik.3.7: Help with reciting for firstfruitsM. Bik.3.8-12: Offerings accompanying the firstfruits (No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)M. Bik.4.1-5: Comparison of hermaphrodites with men and women (No traditions contain any evidence of originating before 70 C.E.)Summary and ConclusionsGLOSSARY & INDEXESGrammatical Differences with Biblical HebrewTransliterationGlossary of Technical VocabularyIndex of Named Individuals and PlacesIndex of SubjectsIndex of References to Ancient Literature
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