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Creation and Chaos in the Primeval Era and the Eschaton: Religio-Historical Study of Genesis 1 and Revelation 12 (Hermann Gunkel K William Whitney Jr (trans)) Paperback Book, (Wm B Eerdmans Publishing Co, 2006) 9780802828040
Creation and Chaos in the Primeval Era and the Eschaton: Religio-Historical Study of Genesis 1 and Revelation 12 (Hermann Gunkel K William Whitney Jr (trans)) Paperback Book, (Wm B Eerdmans Publishing Co, 2006) 9780802828040
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Title: Creation and Chaos in the Primeval Era and the Eschaton: Religio-Historical Study of Genesis 1 and Revelation 12

Author: Gunkel, Hermann K William Whitney Jr (trans)

Publisher: Wm B Eerdmans Publishing Co; Publication Date: 2006

Paperback; ISBN: 9780802828040

Volumes: 1; Pages: 456

List Price in Paper: $40.00 Our price: $27.99

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Foreword by Peter MachinistHermann Gunkel's groundbreaking Schpfung und Chaos, originally published in German in 1895, is here translated into English in its entirety for the very first time.The first major historical study of creation and chaos motifs in the Bible, Gunkel's work has exercised a profound influence on the development of modern biblical studies. Having discovered a number of parallels between the biblical creation accounts and a Babylonian creation account, the Enuma Elish, Gunkel argued that the ancient Babylonian traditions shaped the Hebrew people's perceptions both of God's creative activity at the beginning of time and of God's re-creative activity at the end of time.Though some of Gunkel's arguments have not withstood the test of time, his "traditio-historical" methodology has become a major foundation of modern biblical scholarship. K. William Whitney's singular translation finally makes this classic contribution available to English-speaking readers.ContentsForeword, by Peter MachinistTranslator's PrefaceTransliterationIntroductionGENESIS 1: CREATION IN THE PRIMORDIAL AGE1. Literature (Concerning the Babylonian Origin of Genesis 1)2. Genesis 1 Is Not a Free Construction of the AuthorThe ancient features transmitted in Genesis 1 (chaos; the divine spirit; darkness; origin of plants; stars; the creation of humanity; "good"; the commandment concerning food; the Sabbath) show that Genesis 1 originates from ancient traditions. Some features (chaos, stars) point to the Babylonian origin of the tradition3. The Babylonian CosmogonyGreek descriptions by Damascius; and Berossus. The cuneiform account, paraphrased and elucidated in its important features; the ambiguity of the myth in its Babylonian form; variants4. Allusions to the Myth of the Struggle of Marduk against Ti'amat in the Old Testament, apart from Genesis 11. The dragon traditions-Rahab: Isa 51:6f.; Ps 89:10-14; Job 26:12f.; Job 9:13; Ps 87:4; Isa 30:7; Ps 40:5-Leviathan: Ps 74:12-19; Isa 27:1; Job 40:25-41:26; Ps 104:25f.; Job 3:8-Behemoth: Job 40:19-24; 1 Enoch 60:7-9; 4 Ezra 6:49-52; Isa 30:6; Ps 68:31-The Dragon in the Sea: Job 7:12; Ps 44:20; Ezek 29:3-6a; 32:2-7; Jer 51:34, 36, 42; Pss. Sol. 2:28b-34-The Serpent: Amos 9:2f.Compilation of the mythological materials discovered; variants; application2. The traditions of a primeval sea-The conquest of the sea in primeval times: Ps 104:5-9; Job 38:8-11; Prov 8:22-31; Jer 5:22b; 31:5; Pss 33:6; 65:7f.; Sir 43:(25)23; Prayer of Manasseh 2-4; Isa 50:2b, 3-Applied to the end time or in reminiscences: Psalm 46; Isa 17:12-14; Hab 3:8; Nah 1:4; Ps 18:16-18; Ps 93:3f.; Ps 77:17; Ps 106:9; Isa 59:15-20-Compilation3. Comparison of the Old Testament dragon- and primeval sea-traditions with the Babylonian Ti'amat traditions5. The Babylonian Origin of the Creation Account of Genesis 1, Its Character and the Time of Its Introduction into Israel1. Babylonian origin of Genesis 12. Character of the recension of Genesis 13. Time and manner of the adoption of the myth-The material which was adopted during and after the exile [into Zechariah, into Ezekiel, Lilith, Shedim, Hlal ben Shahar, etc.], the character of Genesis 1 itself; and the allusions in Deutero-Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Jeremiah. This all teaches that the myth was not adopted during the exile.-The assignation to prophetic times is just as impossible for the creation account as for the sagas of Paradise, Noah, Nimrod, and the Tower of Babel.-The creation myth entered into Canaan in ancient times; Babylonian influence at that time; antiquity of creation faith in Israel; positive evidence-Conclusion: Account of the migration of the Babylonian creation myth into IsraelRevelation 12: CREATION IN THE END TIME1. 1. Revelation 12 Is Not of Christian Origin.-The Christ of the chapter does not refer to Jesus. The difficulty of this exegesis; the usual particulars-The woman cannot be understood in a Christian manner. The person of the woman; her flight-The aim of the chapter cannot be understood by recourse to Christian composition. Has a description of something bygone made its way into an apocalyptic setting?; application of the results to Revelation 12-The Christian pieces of the chapter-Arguments from the arrangement of Revelation-Rebuttal of the objections against a Jewish interpretation of the chapter.-The parallel tradition of y. Ber. 5, 1-Hebraic composition of the chapter-Results2. The Interpretation of Revelation 12 according to "Contemporaneous Exegesis"-Contemporaneous exegesis of Revelation: methodology; contemporary exegesis comprises, in reality, two different exegetical methods; traditiohistorical exegesis-Some contemporary exegeses: classification; the five classes: (1) the two witnesses, the hellhole, (apollyon), the white stone, the tail of the serpent; (2) the cavalry, the grasshoppers, the frogs; (3) the martyrs, the refuge, the great multitude; the (anomos) and the (katechon); (4) the four riders, the seventh vision; (5) the sixth seal, etc.; appendix: concerning chapters 13 and 173. Revelation Is Not of Jewish Origin.-Negative evidence: the exegesis of the chapter from the Jewish standpoint is prudent.* The method of this exegesis, the "linkage" method* Examples of this exegesis of chapter 12--the travail, the casting down of the stars, the birth and flight of the Christ, the battle with the dragon, the flight of the woman* The organizing principles* The "fantastic" narratives of the apocalyptists* Results-Positive evidence: the chapter is the codification of a tradition.* Evidence from the nature of the chapter; method of perceiving a tradition; instances where the continuity of chapter 12 is broken; insubstantial and substantial themes in juxtaposition; Armageddon; three and a half-Positive evidence, continuation: this tradition is of extra-Judaic descent.* The original form of this tradition is of a mythological nature.* The Jewish pieces of the chapter are interpretive appendages.4. Babylonian Material in Later Judaism-Revelation 12 is not of Greek descent.-The materials in Revelation 12 which are related to materials elsewhere in Revelation, as well as in Enoch, Daniel, and Zechariah, stem from extra-Judaic, oriental religion.-Babylonian materials in Judaism* The seven spirits; the 24 presbyters; the 12 angels of the zodiac, the seven levels of hell* Esther = Ishtar* Leviathan and Behemoth; the dream of Mordecai in the Add Esth 1:4-10; the dragon of Babylon* Daniel 7; its interpretation; its objective; the vision is an allegorizing tradition; this tradition is the chaos myth; reconstruction of the tradition; the relationship of the author to the tradition-Revelation 13 and 17.* Relationship of the chapters to each other and to chapter 12* The chapters illustrate different recensions of the same tradition.* Relationship of chapter 13 to chapter 12* Reconstruction of This Tradition- This tradition has not been radically affected by contemporary history.- Separation of the tradition and contemporary materials in chapter 17- Separation of the tradition and contemporary materials in chapter 13- The lineage of the tradition
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