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Title: Religion and Community in the Roman Near East: Constantine to Muhammad
Author: Millar, Fergus
Publisher: Oxford University Press; Publication Date: 2014
Hardcover; ISBN: 9780197265574
Volumes: 1; Pages: 150
List Price in Cloth: $55.00 Our price: $44.99
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This book explores the way in which different ethnic, religious and linguistic communities co-existed and conflicted in the Roman Near East in the three centuries between the conversion of the Emperor Constantine to Christianity in 312 and the beginning of Muhammad's preaching in about 610. In the fourth century a major role was played by Greek-speaking pagans, most notably the great orator, Libanius, from Antioch in Syria. After about 400, however, the public observance of pagan rituals died away under the pressure of Christianity. But the Greek language, as used in the Church, remained dominant.Pagan Aramaic is curiously invisible in this period, but the dialect of Aramaic used by Jews in Palestine is found in very extensive use, along with Hebrew, in a mass of religious literature, including the Palestinian Talmud, Aramaic versions of books of the Bible, and in inscriptions from synagogues. Most of the synagogue inscriptions come from their often quite elaborate mosaic floors, some of which contain visual representations of scenes from the Bible. Jews used Greek also, even in the inscriptions from synagogues, and so too did Samaritans, who were a powerful force in Late Antique Palestine, mounting two major revolts against the Empire.Outside Palestine, the most notable development in the culture of the region was the emergence of Syriac (a particular dialect and script of Aramaic) as a language of Christian culture and belief. "Syrians" however were not a distinct ethnic group. The group which was most distinct from the others was made up of the unsettled and warlike peoples on the fringes of the Empire whom almost invariably, call "Arabs," but who in Late Antiquity were far more often referred to as "Saracens." By the end of the period, many of them had converted to Christianity. The major puzzle which the book poses is what is the relation between this process of conversion and the rise of Islam.Table of ContentsPROLOGUE: EXCAVATING THE BIBLEI. A GREEK CHRISTIAN WORLD?1. Introduction: Christians and Jews in Gerasa2. The Late Roman Near East: Time and Space3. . Aramaic-speaking Pagans in the Christian Period?4. A Greek World, Pagan and Christian5. Greek Literary Culture in the Near East6. Greek Christianity in its Local Context: Documentary EvidenceII. JEWS AND SAMARITANS IN A GREEK CHRISTIAN WORLD1. Introduction: Greek in Palestine2. Religious and Ethnic Communities in Palestine: Co-existence and Conflict3. Samaritan Religion and Culture4. Jews and Judaism in Palestine5. The Jewish Diaspora: (a) The Mediterranean Coast and the Orontes Valley (b) From Arabia to MesopotamiaIII. SYRIANS AND SARACENS: SURYOYE AND TAYYOYE1. Introduction: Sixth-century Divisions2. The Background: the Third and Fourth Centuries3. Syriac and Greek, 373-4854. Syriac, 373-485: Inscriptions and Manuscripts5. Syriac Writing before 4856. The Flowering of Syriac from 4857. Saracens or TayyoyeEPILOGUE: CONNECTING TO MUHAMMAD?